KUMONOS

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KUMONOS is a total station which has a built-in crack scale and 3D database management system. It can determine crack shape and width from a distance, 2D and 3D images of the data which are gathered by KUMONOS automatically drawn on a computer, which is accompanied by positional coordinates. KUMONOS provides safe, accurate and fast crack inspection.

The world’s first built-in crack scale

Innovation on concrete crack measurement
Crack width are calculated from the relation of the distance between the crack and the instrument, and the gauge number that is found by positioning the scale mark over the crack.

Improved measurement accuracy

improved measurement accuracy
KUMONOS can measure crack width of 0.3mm, 0.2mm, and 0.1mm from the respective distances of 80 meters, 50 meters, and 25 meters. This increase in measurable range allows safe and secure crack inspection in places where scaffolds or boom lifts have been required, and crack inspection was difficult or impossible.

Automatic creation of CAD drawings using dedicated software

Automatic creation of CAD drawings using dedicated software
The dedicated application software automatically converts acquired measurement data to CAD data and creates plotted drawings. It is possible to create layers, as well as add crack numbers and crack extensions to the CAD drawing.

Compensation of collimation angle

Compensation of collimation angle
When we view the same width from different angles, they look different. Some of them look thick, others thin and others a medium width. This phenomenon is a problem for crack inspection,but KUMONOS automatically compensates for the angle and gets the right width.

Wide inspection range

Wide inspection range
Structures such as the following can be inspected by KUMONOS. Bridges, walls, dams, tunnels, concrete pavements and other concrete structures. These areas are no longer problematic. Inaccessible places such as a busy street or river is in front of the object you want to measure. Places where scaffolds and boom lifts are inaccessible.

>>Crack inspection examples



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Method Comparison

Experiment for Comparing Conventional Methods and KUMONOS

1.Condition

Subject:3 people who got 2-day technical training
What Is to Be Measured:5 simulated cracks on paper
Place of Experiment:50m away from what is to be measured
Number of Times:1

2.Method

    1. Set the simulated cracks (Figure.1) on the wall as shown by Figure.2.
    2. Measure the position and the shapes of cracks in the two ways below.
      – Observe the cracks through a pair of binoculars and sketch them (Figure.3)
      -Measure cracks using KUMONOS (Figure.4)
    3. Draw a figure on AutoCAD
    4. Overlap the figure with the simulated cracks and analyze the defferences

3.Result

Comparison Accuracy (Position and Shape)

KUMONOS Conventional Method
1mm ~ 3mm 28mm ~ 46mm

*Accuracy: The difference between the figure and the cracks to be measured

The Result of Measuring the Widths (Only Using KUMONOS)

Crack No.
Actual Width (mm)
Result
Accuracy
A
B
C
Average
1
0.20
0.22
0.22
0.18
0.21
±0.02
2
0.40
0.42
0.36
0.44
0.41
±0.04
3
0.09
0.10
0.14
0.14
0.13
±0.05
4
0.20
0.22
0.18
0.22
0.21
±0.02
5
0.30
0.32
0.29
0.32
0.31
±0.02

*Accuracy: The difference between the figure and the cracks to be measured

KUMONOS is approximately 10 times as accurate as the conventional
method in inspecting the position and the shape of a crack.

The width accuracy is within 0.05mm when measuring from 50m away.

 

Monitoring the Growth of Cracks


When monitoring a bridge pier, cracks on the pier can be measured from a safe distance. Cracks can be monitored over time by comparing figures, thereby the
progression of damages such as the growth of cracks and the expansion of rust can be quantitatively analized.
Based on this analysis, it’s also possible to predict future deterioration.


  1. Developing new cracks
  2. Occurrence of efflorescence*
    (The decalcified aggregate concrete which appears on the surface of the pier)
    *It may present a cosmetic problem only, but can sometimes indicate serious structural weakness.
  3. The growth of a crack 1st: Length 200mm/Width 0.1mm → 2nd: Length 340mm/Width 0.25mm

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Features

Data on cracks

The width, length, shape, 3D positional coordinates of cracks 2D and 3D data.

Technical Improvements

Measurement of crack width

from a distance of up to (m) 1.5 5 10 30 50 ・・・ 100 ・・・
A width down to (mm) 0.007 0.022 0.044 0.132 0.221 ・・・ 0.441 ・・・
*from a right angle

Distances of 1.5 up to 1000m are measurable without a reflector.
Compensation of collimation angle
When we view the same width from different angles, they look different.
Some of them look thick, others thin and others a medium width as the pictures show.

From a RIGHT angle From an OBLIQUE angle
From a RIGHT angle From an OBLIQUE angle

This phenomenon is a problem for crack inspection,but KUMONOS automatically compensates for the angle and gets the right width.

Data Management

The data gathered is added in order of it’s acquisition and accompanied by the positional coordinates.
It is easy to plot out a bridge, wall, weir, building or arched structures such as tunnels.

Wide Inspection Range

Structures such as the following can be inspected by KUMONOS.
Bridges, walls, dams, tunnels, concrete pavements and other concrete structures.
These areas are no longer problematic.
Inaccessible places such as a busy street or river is in front of the object you want to measure.
Places where scaffolds and boom lifts are inaccessible.

Reductions

The gap between the real object and the data acquired.
A Used Method  Gap between the real object and the data acquired
Traditional Method  18mm to 72.5mm

↓ approx. 1/30 at the max!!

With KUMONOS     1.8mm to 2.5mm
Labor intensive tracing is reduced.
Injury risks are reduced because it is no longer necessary to work a on scaffolds or a boom lift.
Cost are reduced.
Scaffolds, a boom lift and the workers preparing them are not necessary.

Other Advantages

Easy to track of the changes in cracks over time.
A vital tool in the preparation of plans.
Formulate the appropriate repair plans.
Efficient asset management.
KUMONOS has been registered as 2 class A total station by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan.
NETIS Registered No. KK-080019-V, Name of the new technology :Concrete Crack Inspection System
KUMONOS was named as one of the recommended technologies registered in NETIS by the Japanese Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.


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How to Use

Preparation

Set up KUMONOS at the desired distance.

Measurement & Drawing

Measurement

There are 3 measurement modes according to the shape of the target, which are shown below.

Data & Drawing

  1. The data gathered is added in order of acquisition
    and accompanied by the positional coordinates.
  2. The data is stored in a memory card.
  3. Upload the data to a computer in which the KUMONOS software has been installed.
    Then, when the command button is pressed, a figure is drawn automatically.
    Both 2D and 3D figures are available. (The data remains accurate)

Measurement Modes & Drawing Types

    1. Plane Mode (Except for horizontal planes)Objects: Bridge piers, retaining walls, slopes
      Drawing Type: Development view, elevation view, 3D

A bridge pier

A retaining wall

A school building

An elevation view of a bridge pier

 

    1. Level Mode (Only for horizontal planes)
      Objects: Ceilings, road surfaces, floor slabs
      Drawing Type: Plan view, 3D

A floor slab

An image of a floor slab

 

    1. Arch Mode

Objects: Tunnel, other rounded structures
Drawing Type: 3D, development view


A tunnel

A developed image of a tunnel

A 3D image of a tunnel

Examples











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Specifications

Innovation in Crack Inspection

Leica Viva TS11
Angle measurement

Accuracy Hz,V *1 1″(0.3 mgon),2″(0.6mgon), 3″(1 mgon), 5”(1.5mgon)
Display resolution: 0.1”(0.1mgon)
Method absolute,continuous,diametrical
Compensator Quadruple axis compensation
Setting accuracy 0.5″(0.2 mgon), 0.5”(0.2mgon), 1.0″ (0.3 mgon), 1.5″ (0.5 mgon)

*1 standard deviation ISO 17123-3

Distance measurement (IR-Mode)

Range*1 Round prism (GPR1) 3500 m (12000 ft.)
Mini prism (GMP101) 2000 m (7000 ft.)
Reflective tape
(60 mm x 60mm)
250 m (800 ft.)
Shortest measurable distance 1.5 m
Accuracy /
Measurement time*2
Standard 1 mm + 1.5 ppm / typ. 2.4 s
Fast 3 mm + 1.5 ppm / typ. 0.8 s
Continuous 3 mm + 1.5 ppm / typ. <0.15 s
Display resolution 0.1 mm
Method System analyzer based on phase shift measurement (coaxial, visible red laser)

*1 Overcast, no haze, visibility about 40km; no heat shimmer, *2 Standard deviation ISO 17123-4

PinPoint R1000 reflectorless distance measurement (RL-Mode)

Range *1 PinPoint R1000 1000m (3280 ft.)
Accuracy /Measurement time*2 Reflectorless < 500 m: 2 mm + 2 ppm / typ. 3 . 6 s,max. 12 s
Reflectorless > 500 m: 4 mm + 2 ppm / typ. 3 . 6 s,max. 12 s
Long Range: 5 mm + 2 ppm / typ. 2.5 s,max. 12 s
Method PinPoint / R1000: System analyzer (coaxial,visible red laser)

*1 Object in shade, sky overcast, Kodak Grey Card (90% reflective) *2 Standard deviation ISO 17123-4

General data

Telescope Magnification: 30 x
Free objective aperture 40 mm
Field of view 1°30’ (1.66 gon) / 2.7 m at 100 m
Focusing range 1.7 m to infinity
Display 640 × 480 pixel (VGA) color TFT with LED backlight and touch screen
Data storage Memory device SD card, USB stick
Internal memory 1 GB (nonvolatile NAND Flash)
Interfaces: RS232, Bluetooth® Wireless-Technology, USB mini AB OTG
Laser plummet Centering accuracy 1.5 mm at 1.5 m
Number of drives 1 horizontal 1 vertical
Battery (GEB221) Type Lithium-Ion
Operating time 10h
Weight Total station 4.8 – 5.1 kg
Battery (GEB221): 0.2 kg
Tribrach (GDF121): 0.8 kg
Environmental specifications Working temperature
range:
-20° C to +50° C
Storage temperature
range:
-40° C to +70° C
Dust / water (EC 60529): IP55
Humidity: 95 %, non-condensing

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Downloards

 →KUMONOS Brochure (English)

 →Leica Viva TS11/TS15 KUMONOS Brochure (English)

 →Leica Viva TS11 Datasheet (English)

 →Leica Viva TS15 Datasheet (English)

 →KUMONOS Application (English)

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Videos

Official Promotion Video

The Savior of Aging Infrastructures – A Concrete Crack Measurement System


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Why do you need to inspect cracks?

The reason is that cracks are important indicators of concrete structures’ endurability to withstand events such as earthquakes and the like.

The more cracks a structure has, the more it loses its resistance.
For example, geological change and some forces may cause the structure to lean.
Then, cracks arise over the structure.
The leaning structure is no longer durable.
Furthermore, deep cracks cause corrosion in the structure’s rebar.

When such a structure which has many cracks begins to tumble,
its fragments can fall into the street, causing a potentially hazardous situation.

This is why the cracks need to be examined,

However, despite its importance, there had not been an efficient method for crack inspection.
So far, without the aid of KUMONOS, one would have to measure cracks with a ruler called a Crack Scale and sketche each crack one by one on paper with a pencil.
That requires much labor, time and also a high cost.
Moreover, conducting an inspection by this traditional method exposes workers to danger.
Also, even by trying one’s utmost, it’s nearly impossible to acquire accurate data.

KUMONOS solves all these problems!!

What’s the meaning of “KUMONOS”?

“KUMONOS” is spider’s web in Japanese.
After all, the reticle of KUMONOS looks like spider’s web, doesn’t it?